These poem excerpts were hard reads but this is what I grasped from Tolsons writings. There was one quote that stuck out to me that I believed I immediately understood. “Europe bartered Arica crucifixes for red ivory, Gewgaws for black pearls, pierres d’aigl’is for green gold:
Soon the rivers and roads became clog almanacs! “. I think this quote specifically relates to the direct pillaging of not only Africas resources, but also the art and culture associated with different African cultures. It also touches on how Europe “introduced” Christian religion during this time. I believe this is important because it contradicts Hegels believe that culturally Africa had nothing of value to offer and needed Europeans when its in fact quite the opposite. One quote I did not understand initially was “Before the bells of Yankee capital Tolled for the feudal glory of the South And Frederick Douglass’s Vesuvian mouth Erupted amens crushing Copperheads”. Going forward I think this quote is alluding to a time before Africans had been in America and trying to make the reader think about these times in a sense whether it would have been better if Africa had been isolated or left alone as a continent and how the world would be now.

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